Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia
Rev Bras Hematol Hemoter 2017;39:4-12 DOI: 10.1016/j.bjhh.2016.09.015
Original article
Secondary myeloid neoplasms: bone marrow cytogenetic and histological features may be relevant to prognosis
Roberta Sandra da Silva Tanizawaa,, , Maria Claudia Nogueira Zerbinib, Ricardo Rosenfeldc, Cristina Aiko Kumedaa, Raymundo Soares Azevedob, Sheila Aparecida Coelho Siqueiraa, Elvira Deolinda Rodrigues Pereira Vellosoa
a Universidade de S??o Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital das Cl??nicas, S??o Paulo, SP, Brazil
b Universidade de S??o Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina, S??o Paulo, SP, Brazil
c Universidade Federal de S??o Paulo (UNIFESP), Hospital S??o Paulo, S??o Paulo, SP, Brazil
Received 22 July 2015, Accepted 21 September 2016
Abstract
Background

Secondary myeloid neoplasms comprise a group of diseases arising after chemotherapy, radiation, immunosuppressive therapy or from aplastic anemia. Few studies have addressed prognostic factors in these neoplasms.

Method

Forty-two patients diagnosed from 1987 to 2008 with secondary myeloid neoplasms were retrospectively evaluated concerning clinical, biochemical, peripheral blood, bone marrow aspirate, biopsy, and immunohistochemistry and cytogenetic features at diagnosis as prognostic factors. The International Prognostic Scoring System was applied. Statistical analysis employed the Kaplan–Meier method, log-rank and Fisher's exact test.

Results

Twenty-three patients (54.8%) were male and the median age was 53.5 years (range: 4–88 years) at diagnosis of secondary myeloid neoplasms. Previous diseases included hematologic malignancies, solid tumors, aplastic anemia, autoimmune diseases and conditions requiring solid organ transplantations. One third of patients (33%) were submitted to chemotherapy alone, 2% to radiotherapy, 26% to both modalities and 28% to immunosuppressive agents. Five patients (11.9%) had undergone autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The median latency between the primary disease and secondary myeloid neoplasms was 85 months (range: 23–221 months). Eight patients were submitted to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to treat secondary myeloid neoplasms. Important changes in bone marrow were detected mainly by biopsy, immunohistochemistry and cytogenetics. The presence of clusters of CD117+ cells and p53+ cells were associated with low survival. p53 was associated to a higher risk according to the International Prognostic Scoring System. High prevalence of clonal abnormalities (84.3%) and thrombocytopenia (78.6%) were independent factors for poor survival.

Conclusion

This study demonstrated that cytogenetics, bone marrow biopsy and immunohistochemistry are very important prognostic tools in secondary myeloid neoplasms.

Keywords
Myelodysplastic syndromes, Second malignancy, Second neoplasm, Secondary effect, Therapy-associated neoplasm ;
Rev Bras Hematol Hemoter 2017;39:4-12 DOI: 10.1016/j.bjhh.2016.09.015